Our genetic codes are our ‘script of life’ and resemble a huge dictionary containing billions of codes, similar to the design of a car which consists of many different parts that collectively function to make the car move.

These codes come from mother and father and reshuffle during mating to form the script of their offspring which determine their appearances, bodily function, disease traits etc.

Genetic profiles amongst family members are similar but not identical and the ways how these genes express themselves, can also be influenced by external factors like nutrition, education, lifestyle and medical treatment.

By identifying high risk subjects with genetic predisposition, we can empower these subjects to manage their risk and seek advice from health care professionals to reduce future risk of diabetes and its complications.



We provide tests related to diabetes including tests measuring beta cell sufficiency (C-peptide, Anti-GAD, Anti-IA2), screening for monogenetic diabetes as well as two genetic tests predicting probability of having diabetes and development of diabetes related complications.

APeople at risk or with diabetes who need regular monitoring and early intervention


DForesee™ and DProtect™ are tests based on combining patented genetic markers, non-modifiable (e.g. age and sex) and modifiable risk factors (e.g. smoking and body weight) to calculate the future risk of developing diabetes or its complications at a very early stage before these conditions appear.

Genetic markers related to developing diabetes or its complications will be tested and results will show the high and low risk DNA carried by users. By using proprietary risk algorithms, probability of having diabetes or developing of complications will be predicted from current age to age of 65 in DForesee™ or age of 75 in DProtect™.

This panel of tests estimates a probability for having diabetes based on personal, genetic and modifiable risk factors.

This panel includes common variants implicated in development, structure and function of insulin-secreting cells. These genetic variants interact with one another and their effects are amplified by risk factors such as obesity and smoking. Carriers of these genetic variants may develop diabetes at an earlier age and some may need early drug use for control. Family members of people with diabetes are advised to learn about their genetic risk for having diabetes in order to take early preventive actions.

This is a comprehensive health assessment, which not only includes your DForesee™ genetic test result, but also provide a personalized recommendation and follow-up by healthcare professionals.

Please refer to for details.

This panel of tests calculates a 5-year probability that predicts the future risk of developing cardiovascular-renal complications.

This panel includes common variants implicated in beta cell biology and interacting pathways which can be activated by high blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids levels to cause cardiovascular-renal disease. People with diabetes are advised to learn about their genetic risk for diabetic complications in order to intensify their control of risk factors (A1c, BP and LDL-C) including use of organ protective drugs for early prevention.

BPeople with young-onset and/or non-obese diabetes at high risk of beta cell insufficiency


These biomarkers include precursors of insulin (C peptide) and autoimmune antibodies (anti-GAD and anti-IA-2) which indicate reserve of insulin-secreting cells. Non-obese patients especially those diagnosed before age of 40 with or without affected parents and/or siblings may have low C peptide and/or positive antibodies, which call for early drug treatment including insulin.

CPeople with young-onset diabetes, especially having multiple generations affected, who may need extended family screening.


MD PANEL (GK, HNF 1-alpha, HNF 1-beta)
The MD panel detects genetic mutations, unique to a family pedigree, which requires re-sequencing of all coding regions of known MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) genes in Chinese. These genetic mutations may be found in patients with multiple generations affected by diabetes with increasingly young age of diagnosis (e.g. less than 25 years old). Defining different types of MODY have treatment implications with some requiring insulin while others may benefit from sulphonylureas. The other genetic variants code for mitochondrial protein (MtA3243G) and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP S20G) and are found in less than 5% of people with diabetes. These patients often have reduced insulin secretion who may need early insulin treatment.


ASpecimen Collection

Our test is simple and safe. Only trace amount of buccal cells (Buccal swab or spit kit) or blood (1-2mL) is needed. No prior procedures e.g. fasting or stop medication is required.
A simple questionnaire about patients’ non-modifiable (e.g. age and sex) and modifiable risk factors (e.g. smoking and body weight) will need to be completed for analysis for providing individualized recommendations.

BLaboratory Testing

Contact us at 2809 2893 to collect the specimen. The samples will be sent directly to our testing centre for genetic testing.


Report will be sent to you after several working days.

You may then explain and discuss the health plan with your patients or clients. Users of our services may also use our mobile app "MyGem" to review and update their reports and health status for tracking.



The result is divided into 2 main parts:

AResult of Genetic Risk

Genes (a sequence of DNA codes) provide instructions to cells to manufacture proteins essential to our body.
If the DNA sequence is changed, the production, structure or function of the protein will be affected. For most genes, there are two copies, one inherited from the father and the other, from mother.
If DNA changes occur in the genes involved in insulin production or regulation of blood glucose and cellular functions, the risk of developing diabetes or its complications will be increased. In general, more than one gene is implicated with the risk and this risk increases with increasing number of affected genes.

A high risk gene inherited from either your father or mother will give you 1 genetic risk score. Depending on your total genetic risk score, you may be categorized as high (6% in population), moderate-to-high (25% in population), moderate (49% in population), low-to-moderate (15% in population) and low (5% in population) risk groups.

There are a total of 5 genetic markers for DForesee™ and 8 genetic markers for DProtect™ tests.

Involved with maturation of structure and function of insulin protein
Involved in manufacturing process of insulin protein
Involved in degradation of intracellular insulin and thereby terminate its activity
Involved with the maturation of bodily organs including pancreas
Involved in pancreatic islet development and differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells

Conversion of blood glucose inside the cells to form other products accompanied by generation of oxidizing substances which can cause diabetic complications
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in activating the transmission of signals within the cells to influence the cellular structure and functions. High blood glucose can increase the activity of this protein to cause cellular and organ damage resulting in diabetic complications
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the control of blood pressure and cellular functions. People with diabetes often have high level of this protein which can be inhibited by drugs to reduce the risk of complications
  • These genes are implicated in the development, the structure and the function of insulin-secreting cells which regulate blood glucose level in the body. Hyperglycemia mediated by these genetic variants triggers a series of pathogenic pathways associated with vascular dysfunction.

BYour Probability Of Getting Diabetes / Diabetic Complications

In addition to genetic factors, there are other factors contributing to the risk. Diabetes is a disease of aging. Most young to middle aged people have low risk for diabetes but this can rapidly increase after the age of 50, especially in those with high genetic risk. In people who are obese or smoke, the risk of diabetes over time can be further increased. Our calculation algorithm can estimate your risk of having diabetes at current age as well as predicting your risk in later years. It can also estimate your risks after changing your lifestyle such as weight and smoking status.

Age and disease duration are two major factors in determining risk of diabetic complications (heart and kidney disease) which can be modified by good control of blood glucose (indicated by A1c level which is the average blood glucose in last 8-12 weeks), Blood pressure and Cholesterol (ABC) and use of medications. Due to long disease duration, for the same age and sex, people with young onset diabetes have higher risk than those with late onset disease. On average, 5 years after diagnosis, 10-50% of people with diabetes may develop these complications especially in people with high genetic risk. In these high risk subjects, the benefit of optimal control of modifiable risk factors is particularly evident.


This report is useful for medical professionals to understand the health status of your patients. With a precise probability of current and other conditions, you will be able to have a better approach on your patient’s health plan by providing a target and motivation. Amongst diabetic subjects who use DProtect™ test, those with well-controlled blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids have reduced risk of developing these complications.

Since patients with high genetic risk are more likely to develop complications, good control of other risk factors which can be controlled through careful management is particularly important in such subjects. The importance of treatment adherence 1 and early use of organ-protective drugs, notably statins and renin angiotensin system inhibitors 2-5 to prevent life-threatening diseases can be informed by the test.

Report will also highlight the amplifying effects of age and disease duration on future risk of complications and the importance of act early to save life and money. In those subjects without diabetes, the report can inform their inherent risks of diabetes based on genetic risk score and family history and the impacts of weight reduction and cessation of smoking on their overall diabetes risk.


DNA markers discovery

Our Gemomic® Technology is based on decades of university research in our local population. Since 1995, we have established multiple prospective cohorts with ongoing evaluation to discover, evaluate and validate biomarkers for predicting diabetes and its complications including but not limited to heart disease, kidney failure, cancer, stroke and all-cause death.

These cohorts, databases and biobanks included 20,000 patients enrolled into the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry 6, 4500 adults and adolescents as control subjects 7-8 and 1000 first degree relatives of families of young onset diabetes 9.

We are also part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network 10-11 and Global Diabetes Consortium 12, the latter supported by the United States National Institute of Health, which are our key collaborators for validating our discoveries, along with other universities in China, Europe, Australia, Singapore, Korea, Japan and USA.

Using family-based linkage analysis 9,13-15, investigations of candidate genes 16-20 and genome wide association studies 21-23, we have discovered rare and common genetic variants predictive of diabetes and its complications 24-26 with replication in other cohorts or supported by independent meta-analysis 27.


Based on the genetic markers discovered in our Chinese cohorts with validation in other Asian populations or independent analysis, we have developed proprietary risk algorithms combining these genetic markers with highly modifiable risk factors to predict probabilities of diabetes or its complications over time.

Given the subtle inter-ethnic differences in genomic architectures as well as distribution, frequency and effect size of these genetic variants within the same loci 21,28, these genetic markers and algorithms are highly applicable to Asian populations which account for 60% of the global population with diabetes 29. Despite the modest effect size of these individual risk factors, whether genetic 21 or non-genetic 30, their joint effects can be amplified to increase the odds to 3-10 folds in complex diseases due to multiple causes 31.

Based on these premises, we have used similar strategies to develop a large number of risk equations for predicting multiple diabetic complications with personalized reports and decision support which were proven to change practice and health care behaviors with positive clinical outcomes 32-34.


The tests are operated by qualified and well experienced registered medical laboratory technologists in a registered medical laboratory under the Hong Kong Supplementary Medical Professions Ordinance (Chapter 359).


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